Policing

Find Your State

Know the laws in your state that protect LGBT people and people living with HIV.

FEDERAL INITIATIVES

The Trump Administration is (1) doubling down on investments in policing, and immigration enforcement policies and practices that are harmful to communities of color, LGBTQ communities, and immigrant communities, (2) reversing policies of prior presidential administrations that were intended to reduce rights violations by law enforcement, and (3) creating new initiatives to expand the capacity of and protections for law enforcement.

Doubling Down on Policing and Criminalization       

The Trump Administration has prioritized and is making significant investments in dramatically increased immigration enforcement at the border and in the interior.  It has also intensified drug and gang policing through federal and local task forces, and promoted “community policing” initiatives such as “focused deterrence” which flood communities of color with police officers rather than resources to address the underlying drivers of crime, leading to increased criminalization rather than increased safety.[11]

Abdicating Oversight of Local Law Enforcement

The Trump Administration has withdrawn from the enforcement of federal consent decrees mandating reforms of local law enforcement agencies, shut down the voluntary collaborative reform program of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), and made clear its intention to drastically limit federal oversight of local police departments.[12]  Additionally, Attorney General Sessions has announced a return to asset forfeiture policies that incentivize local police departments to seize and sell assets on the grounds that the assets were procured or involved in criminalized activity—even where there has been no conviction of any criminal activity—and to use the proceeds to fund local departments.[13]

Further, both the President and the Attorney General have expressed support for and promoted “broken windows” policing, which consists of aggressive enforcement of low-level, poverty- and survival-based offenses under the unproven theory that such policing practices will reduce future violent crime.[14]  Simultaneously, they have called for and have lauded intensified enforcement efforts targeting alleged gang members, referring to them as “savage,” and “animals.”[15]  The President has explicitly encouraged law enforcement officers to use violence,[16] and has threatened the careers of law enforcement officers who do not comply with his agenda.[17]  In addition to these announcements and pronouncements, over the past year, the Department of Justice has also lifted restrictions on transfers of military equipment to local police departments.[18]

New Initiatives

  • At the initiative of, and with the support of this Administration, Congress is considering legislation known as the “Protect and Serve Act” (S.2794) that would create offenses and increase penalties—up to 10 years and life imprisonment —for actual or attempted harm to anyone who is, or is perceived to be a federally funded local law enforcement agent (which includes the vast majority of state and local law enforcement agents), including probation officers.[19]
  • The DOJ has also announced $65 million in funds to Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN), a program led by local U.S. Attorneys’ Offices that has historically emphasized federal enforcement and prosecution of gun and gang crimes through federal-local task forces.  PSN evolved from Project Exile and other initiatives designed to increase federal prosecutions and sentences for gun and gang offenses.[20]
  • The DOJ has announced $98 million in funds to hire additional local law enforcement officers, prioritizing funding to agencies that agree to collaborate with immigration enforcement efforts.[21]

IMPACTS ON LGBTQ PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

The DOJ, national organizations, and grassroots organizations and advocates across the country have documented widespread patterns and practices of police profiling and discriminatory and abusive treatment of LGBTQ people and people living with HIV, and particularly LGBTQ people of color, LGBTQ immigrants, transgender and gender nonconforming (“GNC”) people, and youth.[22]

In a national community survey of LGBTQ people conducted by Lambda Legal, a quarter of respondents who had in-person contact with police reported at least one type of misconduct or harassment by the police officer, including profiling, false arrests, verbal or physical assault, or sexual harassment or assault.[23]  LGBTQ people of color, LGBTQ youth, low-income LGBTQ people, and transgender people were much more likely to report an experience of at least one type of police misconduct or harassment.[24]  Additionally, LGBTQ respondents of color were five times more likely to be asked about their immigration status by law enforcement than white survey respondents.[25]      

Research conducted by national, state, and local organizations has found that, in the absence of policies prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, and the absence of clear policies governing the determination of gender for the purposes of arrest processing and protection of LGBTQ people in police custody, LGBTQ people experience: homophobic and transphobic discrimination and abuse; unlawful, unnecessary, and humiliating searches to assign gender; and unsafe placement in the custody of local law enforcement, including in police lock-ups.[26]  Additionally, police routinely confiscate condoms and their possession (by transgender women, gender nonconforming  people and gay men) is often cited as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses.[27]  Frequently, LGBTQ survivors of domestic violence are arrested along with their abusive partners if they reach out to the police for help.[28]  And a 2014 report on intimate partner violence between LGBTQ people and people living with HIV (“PLHIV”) and their partners found that 57% of intimate partner violence survivors who called the police experienced police misconduct, including being unjustly arrested.[29]  Finally, “gang policing” practices profile and target LGBTQ youth of color, and particularly lesbian, bisexual, trans and gender nonconforming women of color. [30]

Additionally, although police departments and federal, state, and local governments do not currently collect data on sexual misconduct by police, available research (including media reports and court documents in criminal and civil cases) indicates that sexual harassment and assault of members of the public by police officers occurs with alarming frequency—and that transgender people, GNC people, and lesbian women are among those reporting the highest rates of sexual assault by police.  One study found that an officer is caught in an act of sexual misconduct every five days, a figure researchers recognize is just the tip of the iceberg.[31]  Studies have found that young women of color, low-income women, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women, and otherwise marginalized cisgender and transgender people, are particularly vulnerable to sexual misconduct by law enforcement.[32]  A survey of LGBTQ youth in New Orleans found that 59% of trans youth surveyed had been asked for a sexual favor by the police in New Orleans, along with 12% of non-transgender LGBTQ youth.[33]   LGBTQ youth in a New York City survey were more than twice as likely to report negative sexual contact with police in the prior six months, compared to non-LGBTQ youth.[34]  Among Latina transgender women in Los Angeles County, 24% report being sexually assaulted by law enforcement.[35]  Yet, the vast majority of police departments have no policies or training in place explicitly addressing this issue.[36]

Flooding communities of color and low-income communities with police officers, aggressive “gang policing” initiatives and databases, and the “broken windows” policing practices touted by the current administration have documented discriminatory impacts on LGBTQ youth of color, transgender and GNC people, and LGBTQ homeless people, including high rates of stops, searches, arrests, and physical and sexual violence by police officers.  Such policies also facilitate racialized policing of gender and sexuality, including policing of the use of public accommodations, such as restrooms, by transgender and GNC people, and the violations of the rights of LGBTQ people once in police custody.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOCAL RESISTANCE

State and local advocates can deploy a number of strategies to protect targeted communities from the impacts of these federal administrative and legislative initiatives, including:

  • Advocating for adoption and effective enforcement of strong and comprehensive bans on profiling and other discriminatory law enforcement tactics inclusive of bans on profiling and discriminatory policing based on gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation;[37]
  • Advocating for the decriminalization and de-prioritization of enforcement of minor and “broken windows” offenses;
  • Advocating for pre-arrest diversion programs for drug-, alcohol-, and poverty-related offenses;
  • Calling for increased oversight of local “gang” and “drug” task forces, including public disclosure of departmental memoranda of understanding, and elimination of “gang databases”;[38]
  • Advocating for removal of police officers from schools;[39]
  • Calling for an end to mandatory arrest policies in domestic violence cases and for development of alternative responses to domestic violence and mental health calls that do not involve police and the risk of arrest of survivors of violence;
  • Resisting efforts to pass laws that would enhance penalties for offenses against law enforcement officers (“Blue Lives Matter” or “Back the Blue” laws);[40] and
  • Requesting the intervention of state Attorneys General or the appointment of independent monitors to enforce Department of Justice consent decrees in the DOJ’s absence.[41]

Additionally, Campaigns for Expanded Sanctuary[42] and Freedom Cities represent opportunities for LGBTQ groups to join with immigrant rights, racial justice, and police accountability organizations to combat the Administration’s intensifying criminalization of communities of color, including LGBTQ people of color and immigrants.[43]  Demands of such campaigns include the elimination of “gang databases” a tool of “gang policing” which allows individuals to be labeled as “gang members” based solely on subjective factors such as clothing (including gender nonconforming appearance of young women of color), association with others labeled as “gang members” and other factors rooted in racial and gender profiling.  They also include abandonment of broken windows policing practices and decriminalization of poverty- including survival-based offenses such as laws criminalizing sitting, sleeping or lying in public places, panhandling, prostitution-related offenses, street vending offenses.

[11] “Focused deterrence” is defined as: “A crime prevention program that targets a specified crime problem by applying a concentrated strategy or tactic within a specified high-crime-intensity area.” Nat’l Insts. For Justice, Gun Violence Prevention Strategy: Focused Deterrence (June 5, 2013), https://nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/prevention/Pages/focused-deterrence.aspx; see U.S. Department of Justice Press Release, “Attorney General Sessions Delivers Remarks to the Gaitlinburg Law Enforcement Training Conference, (May 8, 2018), available at https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/attorney-general-sessions-delivers-remarks-gatlinburg-law-enforcement-training-conference; Memorandum from Att’y Gen. Jeff Sessions for All Federal Prosecutors (Mar. 8, 2017), available at https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/946771/download.
[12] Memorandum from Att’y Gen. Jeff Sessions for Head of Department Components and U.S. Atty’s (Mar. 31, 2017), available at https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/3535148-Consentdecreebaltimore.html; see also Grawert & Cullen; Rob Arthur, Jeff Sessions is walking away from the best way to reduce police shootings, VICE News (Dec. 8, 2017), https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/kznagw/jeff-sessions-is-walking-away-from-the-best-way-to-reduce-police-shootings. On March 15, the Attorney General announced a “new” “Collaborative Reform” program. Unlike its predecessor, which was housed at the Department of Justice and employed both law enforcement and civil society experts to provide technical assistance to local law enforcement agencies, the new initiative consists of a $7 million grant to a collaborative of law enforcement organizations including the Fraternal Order of Police, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the Major Cities Chiefs, to create a resource center and offer technical assistance to three local law enforcement agencies – Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Knoxville, Tennessee; and the police department serving the McNeese State University in Louisiana. Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, “Attorney General Sessions Provides Further Support for Local Law Enforcement with Launch of New Collaborative Reform Initiative Technical Assistance Center” (March 15, 2018).  This represents a dramatically different structure and approach than the previous Collaborative Reform Initiative, funneling all resources to law enforcement.
[13] Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, “Att’y Gen. Jeff Sessions Issues Policy and Guidelines on Federal Adoptions of Assets Seized by State or Local Law Enforcement” (July 19, 2017),
https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/attorney-general-sessions-issues-policy-and-guidelines-federal-adoptions-assets-seized-state; see also Christopher Ingraham, Jeff Sessions to increase US police powers to seize cash and property from suspects, The Independent (July 18, 2017) available ahttp://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/jeff-sessions-police-seizure-directive-cash-property-criminals-forfeitures-a7846441.html.
[14] Attorney General Jeff Sessions Delivers Remarks to the National District Attorneys Association, The Department of Justice (July 17, 2017) available at https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/attorney-general-jeff-sessions-delivers-remarks-national-district-attorneys-association; Sessions praises ‘broken windows’ policing, The Washington Post (April 24, 2017) available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/video/national/sessions-praises-broken-windows-policing/2017/04/24/a9ee7f6a-2925-11e7-9081-f5405f56d3e4_video.html?utm_term=.32eb056fe18a; Donald Trump’s stop-and-frisk proposal raises questions, PBS News Hour (Sept. 22, 2016) available at https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/donald-trumps-stop-frisk-proposal-raises-questions; Louis Nelson, Trump calls for nationwide ‘stop-and-frisk’ policy, Politico (Sept. 21, 2016) available at https://www.politico.com/story/2016/09/donald-trump-stop-and-frisk-228486.
[15] See, e.g., President Donald J. Trump, State of the Union Address (Jan. 30, 2018), transcript available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-donald-j-trumps-state-union-address/;  Tal Kopan, Trump: 'We're going to destroy' MS-13”, CNN (July 28, 2017, 3:32 PM), https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2017/07/28/politics/donald-trump-ms-13/index.html.
[16] Cleve R. Wootson Jr. & Mark Berman, U.S. police chiefs blast Trump for endorsing ‘police brutality’Wash. Post, (July 30, 2017), available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/07/29/u-s-police-chiefs-blast-trump-for-endorsing-police-brutality/?utm_term=.0bb38165afa7.
[17] See Aaron Blake, Trump’s continued, not-so-subtle suggestions of violence, The Washington Post (July 28, 2017), available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/07/28/president-trump-encourages-violence-yet-again-this-time-by-police/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.207899436948; see also John Wagner, ‘We’ll destroy his career,’ Trump quips about a Texas state senator at odds with a county sheriff, The Washington Post (Feb. 7, 2017) available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/07/28/president-trump-encourages-violence-yet-again-this-time-by-police/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.207899436948.
[18] Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Justice Att’y Gen. Sessions Delivers Remarks at the 63rd Biennial Conference of the National Fraternal Order of Police (Aug. 28, 2017), https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/attorney-general-sessions-delivers-remarks-63rd-biennial-conference-national-fraternal; Ryan Lucas, Trump Administration Lifts Limits on Military Hardware for Police, Nat’l Pub. Radio (Aug. 28, 2017), https://www.npr.org/2017/08/28/546743742/trump-administration-lifts-limits-on-military-hardware-for-police.    
[19] S. 1134, 115th Congress (2017-2018) and H.R. 2437, 115th Congress (2017-2018), the Back the Blue Act, creates new federal crimes for assaulting or killing federally funded law enforcement. In February 2017, the President issued Exec. Order No. 13774, 82 FR 10695, 2017 WL 568297, a Presidential Executive Order on Preventing Violence Against Federal, State, Tribal, and Local Law Enforcement Officers, available at  https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-executive-order-preventing-violence-federal-state-tribal-local-law-enforcement-officers/; see also Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Justice Att’y Gen. Sessions Delivers Remarks at the 63rd Biennial Conference of the National Fraternal Order of Police (Aug. 28, 2017), https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/attorney-general-sessions-delivers-remarks-63rd-biennial-conference-national-fraternal.
[20] Nat’l Insts. For Justice, Program Profile: Project Exile (May 4, 2015), https://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=413.
[21] Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Attorney General Sessions Announces $98 Million To Hire Community Policing Officers (Nov. 20, 2017), https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/attorney-general-sessions-announces-98-million-hire-community-policing-officers.
[22] See, e.g. James E. Copple and Patricia M. Dunn, Gender, Sexuality and 21st Century Policing: Protecting the Rights of the LGBTQ+ Community, U.S. Department of Justice Community Oriented Policing Service (2017); Solutions Not Punishment Coalition, The Most Dangerous Thing Out Here is the Police: Trans Voices on Abuse and Profiling in Atlanta, 2016, available at http://dev.rjactioncenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/DangerPolice-40pg_4Web.pdf;  Movement Advancement Project, Unjust; National Center for Transgender Equality, Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Discrimination Survey, 2017, available at https://transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/usts/USTS-Full-Report-Dec17.pdf; Nat’l Ass’n for the Advancement of Colored People, Born Suspect: Stop-and-Frisk Abuses & the Continued Fight to End Racial Profiling in America (Sept. 2014), available at https://action.naacp.org/page/-/Criminal%20Justice/Born_Suspect_Report_final_web.pdf; U.S. Dep’t of Justice Civ. Rts. Div., Investigation of the Baltimore Police Department. (Aug. 10, 2016), available at https://www.justice.gov/crt/file/883296/download;  BreakOUT!, We Deserve Better: A Report on Policing in New Orleans By and For Queer and Trans Youth of Color (2014), available at https://web.archive.org/web/20160802135906/http://www.equityprojects.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/WE-DESERVE-BETTER-REPORT.pdf; U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Civ. Rts. Div. Investigation of the Albuquerque Police Department (Apr. 10, 2014), available at https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2014/04/10/apd_findings_4-10-14.pdf;
U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Civ. Rts. Div., Investigation of the Cleveland Police Department (Dec. 4., 2014), available at https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/press-releases/attachments/2014/12/04/cleveland_division_of_police_findings_letter.pdf; Frank H. Galvan & Mohsen Bazargen Interactions of Latina Transgender Women with Law Enforcement, Bienstar (2012), available at http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Galvan-Bazargan-Interactions-April-2012.pdf; Make the Road New York, Transgressive Policing: Police Abuse of LGBTQ Communities of Color in Jackson Heights  (2012), available at http://www.maketheroad.org/pix_reports/MRNY_Transgressive_Policing_Full_Report_10.23.12B.pdf;
Kathryn E.W. Himmelstein & Hannah Brückner, Criminal-Justice and School Sanctions Against Nonheterosexual Youth: A National Longitudinal Study, 127 (1) Pediatrics, 49-57 (2011) (non-heterosexual youth more likely to be stopped by the police and experience greater criminal justice sanctions not explained by greater involvement in violating the law or engaging in transgressive behavior); Mogul, J. L., Ritchie, A. J., & Whitlock, K. Queer (in)justice: The criminalization of LGBT people in the United States (Beacon Press 2011); U.S. Department of Justice Investigation of the New Orleans Police Department, March 2011, available at https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2011/03/17/nopd_report.pdf Nat’l Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Communities in the United States in 2010 (2011), available at http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/Reports/2011_NCAVP_HV_Reports.pdf (finding law enforcement agents to be among the top three categories of perpetrators of homophobic and transphobic violence reported);  Brett G. Stoudt, et al. “Growing Up Policed in the Age of Aggressive Policing Policies.” 56 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev., 1331 (2011), (LGB youth are more likely to experience negative verbal, physical, and legal contact with the police, and more than twice as likely to experience negative sexual contact in preceding six months); U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Civ. Rts. Div. Investigation of the New Orleans Police Department (Mar. 16, 2011), available at https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2011/03/17/nopd_report.pdf; U.S Dep’t of Justice, Civ. Rts. Div. Investigation of the Puerto Rico Police Department (Sept. 5, 2011), available at https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2011/09/08/prpd_exec_summ.pdf;
Amnesty Int’l, Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct Against LGBT People in the United States (2005), available at https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/84000/amr511222005en.pdf (documenting multiple patterns of police profiling, misconduct and violence against LGBT people across the country).
[23] Lambda Legal. Protected and Served? Survey of LGBT/HIV Contact with Police, Courts, Prisons, and Security (2014), https://www.lambdalegal.org/protected-and-served.
[24] Lambda Legal, supra note 23.
[25] Lambda Legal, supra note 23.
[26] See, e.g. James E. Copple and Patricia M. Dunn, Gender, Sexuality and 21st Century Policing: Protecting the Rights of the LGBTQ+ Community, U.S. Department of Justice Community Oriented Policing Service (2017); Movement Advancement Project, Unjust; Mogul et al., supra note 10; Nat’l Prison Rape Elimination Comm’n. Nat’l Prison Rape Elimination Comm’n Report (June 2009), available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/226680.pdf; Amnesty Int’l, supra note 22; Alex Coolman, et al. Still in Danger: The Ongoing Threat of Sexual Violence against Transgender Prisoners, Stop Prisoner Rape and ACLU National Prison Project (2005), http://www.justdetention.org/pdf/stillindanger.pdf.
[27] Human Rights Watch., Sex Workers at Risk: Condoms as Evidence of Prostitution in Four U.S. Cities, (2012), http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0712ForUpload_1.pdf.
[28] Emily Waters, et al., Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Intimate Partner Violence in 2015, Nat’l Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (2016), https://avp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2015_ncavp_lgbtqipvreport.pdf.
[29] Osman Ahmed et al., Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2014, National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (2015), https://avp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2014_HV_Report-Final.pdf.
[30] See Andrea J. Ritchie, Invisible No More: Police Violence Against Black Women and Women of Color (Beacon Press 2017).; Mogul, et al., supra note 10.
[31] Andrea J. Ritchie, Invisible No More: Police Violence Against Black Women and Women of Color (Beacon Press 2017).
[32] Carrie Abner, et al., Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law Enforcement Officers: An Executive Guide, Int’l Ass’ns of Chiefs of Police (June 2011), http://www.theiacp.org/Portals/0/pdfs/AddressingSexualOffensesandMisconductbyLawEnforcementExecutiveGuide.pdf; Jamie M. Grant, et al. Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (2011), http://www.thetaskforce.org/static_html/downloads/reports/reports/ntds_full.pdf; Michelle Fine, et al., Anything can happen with police around: Urban youth evaluate strategies of surveillance in public places, 59 J. of Soc. Issues,  141-58 (2003); Peter B. Kraska & Victor E. Kappeler, To serve and pursue: Exploring police sexual violence against women, 12:1 Justice Q,. 85-112 (2006); Lambda Legal, supra note 23; Philip M. Stinson, et al. Police sexual misconduct: A national scale study of arrested officers 30 Crim. Justice Fac. Publ'ns (2014), available at https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/crim_just_pub/30.
[33] BreakOUT! We Deserve Better!
[34] Stoudt, supra note 22 at 30.
[35] Galvan, supra note 22 at 6.
[36] The Cato Institute's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project, 2010 Annual Report, (2011), available at https://www.policemisconduct.net/statistics/2010-annual-report/; Stinson et al., supra, note 32 Int’l Ass’ns of Chiefs of Police, supra, note 32; Samuel Walker & Dawn Irlbeck, Police Sexual Abuse of Teenage Girls: A 2003 Update on ‘Driving While Female” Dep’t of Crim. Justice Police Professionalism Initiative (June 2003), available at http://samuelwalker.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/dwf2003.pdf.; Samuel Walker & Dawn Irlbeck, Police Sexual Abuse of Teenage Girls: A 2003 Update on ‘Driving While Female” Dep’t of Crim. Justice Police Professionalism Initiative (June 2003), available at http://samuelwalker.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/dwf2003.pdf.
[37] See, e.g. model anti-profiling policy contained in National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Born Suspect: Stop-and-Frisk Abuses & the Continued Fight to End Racial Profiling in America at Appendix III.
[39] See, e.g. http://www.dignityinschools.org.
[40]  For a summary of why these laws can lead to increased criminalization of LGBTQ people and HIV- affected people, see Auditi Guha, Advocates: ‘Blue Lives Matter’ Group Pushes Dangerous Narratives, Rewire.News (July 27, 2017), https://rewire.news/article/2017/07/27/advocates-blue-lives-matter-group-pushes-dangerous-narratives/
[41] See, e.g. Press Release, Illinois Att’y Gen., Atty’ Gen. Madigan Launches Website on Chicago Police Dep’t Consent Decree (Jan. 29, 2018), available at http://illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/pressroom/2018_01/20180129.html; Kevin Rector, Judge appoints Baltimore consent decree monitor proposed by city and DOJ, Balt. Sun (Oct. 3, 2017), available at http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore-city/doj-report/bs-md-ci-consent-decree-monitor-appointed-20171003-story.html
[42] Mijente, Defy, Defend, Expand, Sanctuary Campaign: Expanding Sanctuary Policy Solutions – a Crowdsourced Guide, (Feb. 2017), available at https://mijente.net/2017/02/16/sanctuary-policies/
[43] Andrea J. Ritchie and Monique W. M. Morris, Ed.D., Centering Black Women and Girls in Campaigns for Expanded Sanctuary and Freedom Cities, National Black Women’s Justice Institute (Sept. 2017), available at https://forwomen.org/resources/sanctuary-city-report/