Virginia

Relationships

NO
Does the state allow same-sex couples to marry?
NO
Does the state recognize marriages, civil unions, or domestic partnerships of same-sex couples from other jurisdictions?
NO
Does the state offer any other type of relationship recognition for same-sex couples?

The state constitution prohibits marriage between same-sex couples: “Only a union between one man and one woman may be a marriage valid in or recognized by this Commonwealth and its political subdivisions. This Commonwealth and its political subdivisions shall not create or recognize a legal status for relationships of unmarried individuals that intends to approximate the design, qualities, significance, or effects of marriage. Nor shall this Commonwealth or its political subdivisions create or recognize another union, partnership, or other legal status to which is assigned the rights, benefits, obligations, qualities, or effects of marriage.” (Va. Const. Art. I, §15-A)

State statute prohibits marriage between same-sex couples, and purports to void “contractual rights created by” a marriage of a same-sex couple. See Virginia Code Annotated, §§ 20-45.2 and 20-45.3.

Workplace

NO
Does state law protect employees in the private sector from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation?
NO
Does state law protect employees in the private sector from discrimination on the basis of gender identity and/or gender expression?
NO
Does state law expressly protect employees of state and local governments from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation?
NO
Does state law expressly protect employees of state and local governments from discrimination on the basis of gender identity and/or gender expression?

All government employees are protected by the U.S. Constitution against irrational discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. In addition, some measure of protection already exists under Title VII based on gender, which has been held to include gender identity and expression.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and several courts have interpreted Title VII to protect transgender employees, and the EEOC has interpreted Title VII to cover sexual orientation discrimination. The Supreme Court has held that the EEOC's interpretations of Title VII are entitled to "great deference." 

Parenting

Miscellaneous
Who may adopt?

Any natural person. See Va. Code. § 63.1-219.9.

Miscellaneous
Second-parent adoptions:

Do not appear to be currently available in any jurisdictions.

Generally hostile environment. Although the State signed off on adoption of foster child in D.C. by Virginia lesbian living with partner in Kaufman v. Va. Dept. of Social Services, she required Lambda Legal assistance in overcoming resistance.

Bullying

YES
Does state law prohibit bullying in public schools?
YES
Does the law include cyberbullying?
NO
Does the law specifically mention sexual orientation?
NO
Does the law specifically mention gender identity?
NO
Does the law also apply to private, non-religious schools?
Miscellaneous
Is there a state antidiscrimination law that applies (or may apply) to schools?

Yes, but no mention of sexual orientation or gender identity. 

2013 Virginia Laws Ch. 575 (H.B. 1871), 2013 Virginia Laws Ch. 575 (H.B. 1871), amending Va. Code Ann. § 22.1-279.6 (2009)

Va. Const. art. I, § 11

Va. Code Ann. § 2.2-3900 

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