Pending Marriage Equality Cases
Click on a state to learn more about its pending marriage equality cases.
Pending Marriage Equality Lawsuits
There are currently:
85 lawsuits involving the right of same-sex couples to marry or have their out-of-state marriages respected are pending in 28 states (AL, AK, AZ, AR, FL, GA, ID, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NC, ND, OH, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, and WY) as well as Guam and Puerto Rico. (Same-sex couples already are able to marry in some of these states, but some marriage litigation is still pending in each of these states.)
53 of these lawsuits are in federal court;
6 of these, involving the marriage laws of 4 states (KY, MI, OH, and TN), have been accepted for review by the U.S. Supreme Court and are being briefed. Oral argument of these appeals is set for April 28, 2015;
4 additional petitions for Supreme Court review have been filed regarding the decision of the 9th Circuit holding the marriage bans of ID and NV unconstitutional;
2 further petitions have been filed with the Supreme Court seeking review of cases currently before the 4th Circuit regarding the marriage bans of NC;
a new petition for writ of certiorari was filed by the National Organization for Marriage on 2/23/25 seeking review of a 9th Circuit decision rejecting its efforts to appeal the decision striking down OR’s marriage ban;.
23 of the federal cases are before U.S. courts of appeal ;
20 are in federal district courts;
34 cases are in state courts;
19 of these are on appeal, 7 of which are now before state supreme courts; and
20 of the cases in state courts raise federal claims.
Marriage equality lawsuits are pending in all states that do not currently allow same-sex couples to marry.
Post-Windsor Cases Ruling in Favor of Marriage Equality Claims
In 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for the federal government to refuse to recognize marriages entered by same-sex couples. Since that decision (U.S. v. Windsor), there has been a nearly unbroken string of 48 rulings in 47 cases from 29 different federal courts that have held the laws of 29 states that barred same-sex couples from marrying or having their marriages recognized to be unconstitutional or that have entered partial or full injunctions against them (AL, AK, AR, AZ, CO, FL, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MS, MT, NE, NV, NC, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI, and WY). Including state courts, the total rises to 65 rulings in 61 cases from 44 different federal and state courts invalidating or enjoining the enforcement of the marriage bans of 32 states (the states in the last parenthetical, plus MO, NJ, and NM).
Marriage equality currently exists in 36 states, DC, and parts of KS and MO: Explore our interactive map (click on “Marriage and Relationships”).
In addition, more than 500 same-sex couples married in AR and more than 300 same-sex couples married in MI before stays were issued of rulings that those states’ marriage bans are unconstitutional or orders were issued directing that no further marriage licenses be issued pending appeals of lower court rulings. The marriages entered in MI have been ordered recognized by the state (although that ruling has been temporarily stayed) and are now being recognized for at least federal law purposes, but the federal government has not yet announced whether it will recognize the marriages entered in AR.
In OH, the District Court’s rulings in two cases requiring recognition of marriages entered outside the state by same-sex couples remain in effect as to the named plaintiffs in both cases.
In other cases in which state marriage laws have been ruled unconstitutional in which appellate rulings have not yet issued, the rulings have been stayed pending appeal (in AR, SD, TX, and WY) and, in one of the OH cases, the court’s order has been stayed as to all couples except the named plaintiffs.
Although MO does not currently allow same-sex couples to marry, it has decided to recognize marriages same-sex couples have entered outside the state for all purposes. Whether other states that do not currently allow same-sex couples to marry will recognize marriages entered by same-sex couples out-of-state for all or at least some purposes is not yet fully resolved.
Other Relationship Recognition
As a result of recent rulings, all states that provide comprehensive civil union or domestic partnership also now provide or have appellate court rulings mandating the current ability of same-sex couples to marry throughout the state. Civil union and domestic partnership ordinances and policies also exist in numerous local jurisdictions. Explore our interactive map (click on “Marriage and Relationships”).
* Cases filed, or that newly included a marriage claim, since the decision in Windsor are marked with an asterisk.
Learn more about Lambda Legal's Marriage at the Supreme Court campaign.